A rehabilitation plan, backed by foreign aid, was launched in the last decade of the 20th century. Other agricultural exports such as coffee effectively ceased to be produced until after the end of the war.
The National Diamond Enterprise of Angola, a parastatal company, is responsible for approving diamond concessions , and it also licenses buyers. In 1641 war was raging between the Dutch and the Portueguese and both the Kingdoms of Kongo and Ndongo allied with the Dutch in an effort to drive out the Portuguese from Angola. Timber exports ceased at independence, and available resources came to be used primarily for fuel.
The almost featureless plateau that covers the eastern two-thirds of Angola gradually falls away to between 1,650 and 3,300 feet 500 and 1,000 metres at the eastern border. But in 1988 exhaustion leads to a pact with Cuba.
Most notable of these were the Bakongo, Lunda and Mbundu [xviii]. The Dutch capitulated and Queen Njinga fled to the state of Matamba and continued her resistance against the Portuguese from there. The states had also relied on much of their power as a dominant trading power in the area, and various Lunda states had often mediated trade between European and African states [cvi].
In return Njinga returned to the Catholic Church, gave up her many male consorts, and got married in a Catholic ceremony [lxxxix]. By the end of the 19th century, a massive forced labor system had replaced formal slavery and would continue until outlawed in 1961.
After this time a black and white racial divide would increasingly become the proxy for whom was allowed to gain citizenship and the privileges that went with it.
In 1482, when the Portuguese first landed in what is now northern Angola, they encountered the Kingdom of the Kongo, which stretched from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. After World War II in 1945 there was a great demand for coffee in the world, and in the next 30 years Angola's coffee industry would expand producing 200.
Luanda was the biggest of these, but another large colonial hub was the city of Benguela which was established in 1617 [cxv]. Near the town of Maquela do Zombo in northern Angola. Angola is a most unsettled region when the European scramble for Africa begins in the 1880s.
Imports come from several countries, with Portugal, China, and the United States among the top sources for imports. This meant that the main source of foreign revenue the Kingdom had was drying up. However, they soon found that Angola better served as a labor industry, and deemed slaves as the single-most valuable commodity in that area.
The Ovimbundu Kingdoms were all integrated into the Colony of Angola by 1904. The United States of America was forced to cut much of their support and make it secretive as their people was not interested in any new foreign adventures after the fiasco of the Vietnam War [clxxiv].
Angola is rich in bird species and has a wide variety of reptiles, including crocodiles.
Although after the war Queen Njinga also engaged in the slave trade and sold captured people to the Portuguese [xc]. The elections had to some degree been a zero sum game, and the loser would be left with no power at all.
The linage system Ngola was sometimes used as a royal title for kings in the area and would later become the inspiration for the name Angola [xxi]. In May 1977 some of the poor and working-class people were fed up and launched a coup against President Neto's government.